Limits of classical physics and signatures of quantum mechanical phenomena.

Quantum effects of light: Planck's Radiation law, photons, photoelectric effect, Compton effect, Young’s double slit experiment, entanglement, quantum eraser. Wave properties of particles: Matter waves and wave functions, Schrödinger equation, interference and tunnelling, time evolution. Spin 1⁄2 particles: Stern-Gerlach experiment, directional quantization, superposition, measurement, eigenvalues and eigenstates, expectation value, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. Quantum structure of atoms: Absorption and emission spectra, Franck- Hertz experiment. angular momentum, atomic structure: hydrogen atom, Zeeman effect, fine structure, hyperfine structure, electron spin resonance, emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation, selection rules, multi-electron systems, shell model, periodic table. Quantum states of light: Coherent states, Fock states, generation of non-classical light, laser theory, experimental tests of Bell inequalities.